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    Indulge comes from Latin indulgere (treat with undue favour, give rein to). A father indulging his child is thus pampering her and when one indulges one’s craving, one allows one’s cravings a free rein. From this indulgent gets the sense of permissive or tolerant (as in, indulgent grandparents). Latin licere means to be permitted or allowed from which we get licence and licentious – which has taken on the negative connotation of sexually   Read More ...

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    Related to Latin regere (to guide, keep straight) is another Latin root rex (or reg-) meaning king. A regal stride or stance is thus ‘king-like’ and regalia literally means (rights and privileges) of the king or queen. Later, regalia also began to be used to refer to the crown, emblems, ornaments etc used at the coronation, from which it gets its sense of elaborate clothes or decorations, as in, the   Read More ...

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    Adding cor- to Latin regere (to guide, keep straight) gives us corrigere (to correct). A corrigible criminal can thus be corrected or reformed and a corrigible child is receptive of correcting advice. A hardened criminal on the other hand might prove incorrigible and an incorrigible youngster is difficult to control or manage. If we replace cor- with de- we get Latin derigere (to straighten, to guide) the past participle of which   Read More ...

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    The early societies of hunters and herders were often based on communism. But with the appearance of private wealth and the development of towns and cities inhabited by diverse people, some people emerged to ‘guide’ the rest. Gradually guides transformed into governors and governors into rulers. It’s interesting to note how the meaning of words like Latin regere has changed over time. Latin regere originally meant to guide or keep   Read More ...

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    Latin agere means to do, drive or lead and gives us words such as agile (one who can do things easily or is quick-moving/active, as in, he has an agile mind), agility (this gymnast’s agility is exceptional), agent (person or thing that acts or does things, often on behalf of others), reagent (substance that enables or acts in a chemical reaction) and agency. For regent (a person appointed to govern   Read More ...

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    The English word father has come from the Proto-Indo-European root pəter – which is also related to Sanskrit pitar (पितर), Greek and Latin pater and Old Farsi pita. The Greek word for father is pappas, from which we get papa, pope and papal – which means ‘relating to the pope’ – as in papal blessings or papal audience. A related Greek word patria, which meant family, has given us patriarch. Originally used for   Read More ...

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    Did you know: Before coins and other forms of token money were invented, many societies commonly used cattle as currency and an indicator of wealth. In India, for instance, the term pasu-dhan (पशु-धन) has been in use since ages; in Ireland, “cattle…were used as currency up to around 1400 CE, long after the introduction of coinage” and in some African communities, the bride-price or lobola, continued to be paid in cattle   Read More ...

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    Did you know: Latin nebula (mist or fog), Sanskrit nabhas- (cloud, mists, sky) and Greek nephos (cloud) all come from the same root word. Sanaskrit nabhas- later evolved into nabh (नभ) in Hindi, used, for instance, in these famous lines from Harivansh Rai Bachchan’s Madhushala (मधुशाला) तारक मणियों से सज्जित नभ बन जाए मधु का प्याला सीधा करके भर दी जाए उसमें सागरजल हाला Nebula is nowadays used in English to refer to the interstellar cloud of   Read More ...

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    Did you know: Texture, which we use in phrases such as this cloth has a fine texture to refer to how it ‘feels’ against our skin, derives from the Latin word texere, which means, to weave. Texture is also sometimes used more broadly to mean ‘distinctive quality’, as in the texture of life in an Indian village; or pattern, as in, the texture of his music.           Texere and   Read More ...

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    Vir, in Latin, refers to a man and virilis to being manly or worthy of a man. This root later evolved into virile and virility in English, which has come to refer to ‘masculine characteristics’ such as strength and vigour (esp sexual) and is now also sometimes used in expressions such as a virile and healthy nation or virile leadership to mean energetic or potent. Interestingly, we find वीर्  (and वीरयते which means to be powerful   Read More ...

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